ES Xplore Technology
The key physical mechanism underlying ES Xplore’s direct hydrocarbon indication technology is rock-mediated conversion of electromagnetic energy into seismic or acoustic energy and, in turn, the reverse process of conversion of seismic energy into electromagnetic energy. The significance of these conversions to hydrocarbon detection is their enhancement by the presence of very electrically resistive fluids such as hydrocarbons in the rock pore space.
How ES Xplore Works
The earth’s atmosphere is shown as a source of electromagnetic (EM) pulses. Some of the horizontally polarized energy that crosses the boundary between the earth’s surface and the atmosphere is converted into a vertical electromagnetic field due to inhomogeneity in the subsurface: this process is known as mode rotation. The resulting vertical electromagnetic field drives a vertical current into the earth. At depth, the electromagnetic field interacts with a hydrocarbon reservoir, and part of its energy is converted through the electroseismic effect into a vertically moving seismic wave. This seismic wave is accompanied by an electromagnetic wave due to the seismoelectric effect. An electromagnetic sensor located at the earth’s surface detects both the source vertical electromagnetic field as well as the response vertical electromagnetic field generated from the response seismic wave.
Rock Pore View of Formation
Electrochemical action creates charge accumulation around solids, resulting in a local electric field.
Applied electric field causes fluid to move and creates reactive pressure in the rock.
Magnitude of seismic response is related to hydrocarbon saturation and permeability.